Acute Renal Failure usually occurs when blood supply to kidneys is suddenly interrupted or when kidneys become overloaded with toxins. Causes of Acute Renal Failure include accidents, injuries, or complications from surgeries in which kidneys are deprived of normal blood flow for extended periods of time. Heart-bypass surgery is an example of one such procedure.
Acute Renal Failure takes place rapidly: over days, weeks, or months. It can
be caused by an illness connected with severe infection, severe dehydration for
a prolonged period, or due to kidney stones that block urine being drained out
of the body. If the symptoms are recognized and treated early, these conditions
are usually totally curable.
Among the accidental causes of Acute Renal Failure is there also the crush
syndrome, when large amounts of toxins are suddenly released in blood
circulation after a long compressed limb is suddenly relieved from the pressure
obstructing the blood flow through its tissues, causing ischemia. The overload
can lead to the clogging and the destruction of the kidneys. It is a reperfusion
injury that appears after the release of the crushing pressure. The mechanism is
believed to be the release into the bloodstream of muscle breakdown products –
notably myoglobin, potassium and phosphorus – that are the products of
rhabdomyolysis (the breakdown of skeletal muscle damaged by ischemic
conditions). The specific action on the kidneys is not fully understood, but may
be due in part to nephrotoxic metabolites of myoglobin.
Unlike Chronic Renal Failure, however, Acute Renal Failure is reversible,
allowing the patient to resume a normal life. People suffering from Acute Renal
Failure require effective treatment until their kidneys recover function. To
patients of Acute Renal Failure, timely treatment is necessary.
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