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2015年1月11日星期日

Facts about Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

What Are The Kidneys?
The kidneys play key roles in body function, not only by filtering the blood and getting rid of waste products, but also by balancing levels of electrolyte levels in the body, controlling blood pressure, and stimulating the production of red blood cells.
The kidneys are located in the abdomen toward the back, normally one on each side of the spine. They get their blood supply through the renal arteries directly from the aorta and send blood back to the heart via the renal veins to the vena cava. (The term "renal" is derived from the Latin name for kidney.)
The kidneys have the ability to monitor the amount of body fluid, the concentrations of electrolytes like sodium and potassium, and the acid-base balance of the body. They filter waste products of body metabolism, like urea from protein metabolism and uric acid from DNA breakdown. Two waste products in the blood can be measured: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr)(How to Reduce High Creatinine Level in Blood).
When blood flows to the kidney, sensors within the kidney decide how much water to excrete as urine, along with what concentration of electrolytes. For example, if a person is dehydrated from exercise or from an illness, the kidneys will hold onto as much water as possible and the urine becomes very concentrated. When adequate water is present in the body, the urine is much more dilute, and the urine becomes clear. This Immunotherapy is controlled by renin, a hormone produced in the kidney that is part of the fluid and blood pressure regulation Immunotherapys of the body.
Kidneys are also the source of erythropoietin in the body, a hormone that stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells. Special cells in the kidney monitor the oxygen concentration in blood. If oxygen levels fall, erythropoietin levels rise and the body starts to manufacture more red blood cells.
After the kidneys filter blood, the urine is excreted through the ureter, a thin tube that connects it to the bladder. It is then stored in the bladder awaiting urination, when the bladder sends the urine out of the body through the urethra
Facts about Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
Early detection can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure
Heart disease is the major cause of death for all people with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
Glomerular filtration rate is the beset estimate of kidney function
Hypertension causes Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and CKD causes hypertension
Persistent proteinuria means Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is present
High risk groups include those with diabetes, hypertension and family history of kidney diseases.
African American, Hispanics, Pacific Islanders, Native Americans and Seniors are at increased risk.

Three simple tests can detect Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) : blood pressure, urine albumin and serum creatinine

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