Wish the patients with kidney disease a happy Christmas day ahead of time

2014年1月24日星期五

The Relationship between Kidney Disease and Urea Acid

How does urea acid affect kidney? What’s the relationship between urea acid and kidney damage? Kidney plays a main leading role in the metabolism of urea acid. Every day, about two thirds of urea acid produced is secreted through kidney. The left one third is degraded in stomach and guts by bacteria. So we can see that kidney is the main organ to discharge urea acid. If the out amount of urea acid is more than 600 to 700 ml, the urine is called high urea acid urine. When there is something wrong with the kidney, kidney will fail to secrete urea acid, which lead to high urea acid in blood also called hyperuricemia. Gout is a kind of disease which is caused by too high urea acid in blood. Extra urea acid can be caused by either the increased combination of urea acid or the decreased secretion of urea acid into urine. When kidney fails, there will be less urea acid into guts, so the decreased secretion of urea acid is also a main factor of high urea acid in blood.

On the other hand, kidney is also an organ which can be affected by high blood urea acid, which is due to the specific structure and function of kidney. The solubility of urea acid is low. Every day, a lot of acid metabolic products come into being. Kidney is the main organ of secreting this. In renal tubules, due to the absorption of water, the level of urea acid is high. All these factors can make urea acid into crystals thus causing urea acid kidney disease or worsen the primary chronic kidney disease.

Why Diabetics Feel Dizziness

The reason why there is dizziness for diabetics is such as low blood sugar, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure and so on, the detailed ones are as follows:
1. low blood sugar
Diabetes patients should observe whether they have low blood sugar. If so, we should observe the degree of low blood sugar, the decline speed, and the lasting time. So in the course of diabetes treatment, especially for those who are applying insulin, they should be alert to low blood sugar once dizziness takes place and take timely treatment. Once feeling dizziness, we should monitor sugar in the evening and prevent the occurrence of low blood sugar.
2. cardiovascular disease
If diabetes have complications of cardiovascular disease, there will be cerebral infarction and cardiac arrhythmia. All these patients may have dizziness for there is less blood flow in the brain and less oxygen in the brain as well. So once patients with diabetes have dizziness for a long time, they should go to do tests on electrocardiogram, CT and take in medications if necessary.
3. high blood pressure
If diabetes patients have high blood pressure,also called hypertension, the disease will develop faster, and the prognosis will be more severe. The most common symptom of high blood pressure is dizziness. Once dizziness takes place, we should also test the blood pressure to check whether we have high blood pressure. For those who have known they have had high blood pressure and have taken in hypotensor, they should check whether they have made the blood pressure too low so as to lead to dizziness.
4. rapid increase of blood sugar

Some diabetes patients can not be strict to what they should take in, which leads to the rapid increase of blood sugar,thus causing dizziness. It even threatens the life. So patients with diabetes should monitor the blood sugar.

Why ESRD (End Stage Renal Disease) Patients Have Heart Failure

When kidney disease develops into ESRD (end stage renal disease), a lot of complications come into being such as heart failure, which is a common and severe symptom and is the primary cause of death for renal failure patients. So treating heart problem plays an important role in the treatment of renal failure. Why do uremia patients have heart failure? The reasons can come down to the following aspects:
1. the retention of water and sodium and high blood pressure
Both retention of water and sodium and high blood pressure can lead heart work more and will lead to the heart failure over time. If there is retention of water and sodium, there will be more water in the blood vessels, which makes heart work more.
2. cardiomyopathies
Cardiomyopathies such as uremic cardiomyopathies and uremic pericarditis can make
cardiac muscle shrink and weak.
3. severe anemia
4. arteriovenous fistula
Arteriovenous fistula in dialysis causes hyper flow condition, which is also an important influencing factor and can give extra load to the heart.
5. coronary sclerosis
Coronary sclerosis is another important reason for the heart failure for uremia patients especially for those who take dialysis for many years.
6. abnormal metabolism of sugar and fat

Besides high blood pressure, abnormal metabolism of sugar and fat is also a factor for the level of cholesterol and triglycerides in blood.

Two Main Causations of CKD

The two main causes of chronic kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure, which are responsible for up to two-thirds of the cases. Diabetes happens when your blood sugar is too high, causing damage to many organs in your body, including the kidneys and heart, as well as blood vessels, nerves and eyes. High blood pressure, or hypertension, occurs when the pressure of your blood against the walls of your blood vessels increases. If uncontrolled, or poorly controlled, high blood pressure can be a leading cause of heart attacks, strokes and chronic kidney disease. Also, chronic kidney disease can cause high blood pressure.
Other conditions that affect the kidneys are:
Glomerulonephritis, a group of diseases that cause inflammation and damage to the kidney's filtering units. These disorders are the third most common type of kidney disease.
Inherited diseases, such as polycystic kidney disease, which causes large cysts to form in the kidneys and damage the surrounding tissue.
Malformations that occur as a baby develops in its mother's womb. For example, a narrowing may occur that prevents normal outflow of urine and causes urine to flow back up to the kidney. This causes infections and may damage the kidneys.
Lupus and other diseases that affect the body's immune syImmunotherapy.

Obstructions caused by problems like kidney stones, tumors or an enlarged prostate gland in men.

Pathological Changes That Cause Damages to Kidneys

The first one is the ischemia and anoxia of renal nephrones.
In diseased conditions, people’s blood circulation is abnormal and the common case is that the speed of blood flow is slowed down. Accompanied with slower blood flow, there will be more sedimentation of detrimental substances on the vascular walls. This influences the absorption of effective materials of renal cells. And this ischemia and anoxia situation finally causes damage to kidney.
The second one is the inflammatory reactions of renal nephrones
Infiltration of inflammatory factors generally caused by bacterium, virus and the situation of ischemia and anoxia will lead to inflammatory reactions of renal nephrones. And this will also result in damages to renal cells or even give rise to the break down and apoptosis of renal cells.
The third one is coagulopathy
The break down and apoptosis of renal epithelial cells and mesangial cells will lead to hemorrhage, which activates soterocyte and results in excessive coagulation. And undue coagulation makes it more difficult to infiltrate blood, and this extra burden will surely cause damages to renal nephrones.
The fourth one is high blood viscosity
Excessive absorption of fat and sugar will lead to high blood viscosity. This is because of the high viscosity of these two substances. And high blood viscosity will surely cause difficulty to blood filtration and subsequently result in damages to renal nephrones.
The fifth one is the undue proliferation of extracellular matrix
Researches have proven that once renal nephrones die away, extracellular matrix will occupy the space through proliferation. After that, these extra matrixes will squeeze healthy renal nephrones and cause damages to them.

In conclusion,the process of renal being damaged is also one of kidney functional declination . At last there will be only partial renal nephrones can work and the disease aggravates into Uremia.

2014年1月19日星期日

Overview of renal anemia?

Renal anemia refers to the terminal medical syndrome of the renal illness。The main reason of renal anemia is the lack of hemopoietin caused by kidney injury。Hemopoietin is the essence to generate red blood cells。Therefore,the lack of hemopoietin contributes to the lack of red blood cells。When the quantity of red blood cells is blow to the normal standard,renal anemia will occur。It is the main reason of renal anemia。Otherwise,because of the kidney injury,the swamp of numerous toxin in the blood will disturb the generation or metabolism of red blood cells,which is another reason of renal anemia。
The syndromes of renal anemia。
Renal anemia is the simultaneous phenomenon of chronic nephrosis, which usually occurs when the nephrotics’ serum creatinine values is greater than 308umol/L。The explicit syndromes of renal anemia are usually the followings,such as ,sallow complexion,pale lips,nails,and eye conjunctiva,hypodynamia,and easy blooding etc。Therefore nephritic should pay attention to those phenomenoa。Renal anemia is caused by kidney disease,so renal anemia will aggravate with the deterioration of kidney function。
The detrimental effects of chronic renal anemia。
Chronic renal anemia not only accelerates the process of renal injury,but also causes a variety of deadly diseases,such as,heart failure,stenocardia,hemorrhage of digestive tract and cerebral hemorrhage etc。In particular ,the aggravated anemia will influence the children kidney patients’ development of body and brain .Therefore patients with kidney disease should take medical treatment immediately when anemia occurs.
Medical treatment of renal anemia 。
The treatment of renal anemia starts with the cure of renal disease and the recuperation of renal injury, which will stimulate the generation of hemopoietin to accelerate the generation of red blood cells and ease anemia phenomenon。Also,the dialysis of toxin in the blood is a must to kidney patients to reduce the damage to red blood cells。

Otherwise,blood transfusion is another important remedy for renal anemia。Due to the high anemia tolerance of uremia patients,however,too much blood transfusion is dangerous。The blood transfusion is available only when the quantity of hemoglobin is below 70g/L and when the following phenomena occur,such as,deadly anemia heart failure,stenocardia,hemorrhage of digestive tract and cerebral hemorrhage etc。The preferable substance for blood transfusion is red blood cells concentrate。The quantity of transfused blood shall not be too much,because too much blood transfusion will inhibite the generation of erythrogenin which will restrain red blood cells’ generation。

General Introduction about Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means the period of kidney damage is more than three months and kidney function decreases gradually. Kidney can mainly filter the wastes and some fluids of your blood, eventually excrete them through your urine. So if there is something wrong with your kidney, the wastes can stack in your body, which has a bad influence on your health.
In the early stage, you are very hard to realize that you suffer from CKD, because there are few symptoms or signs. You may only feel subtle dizziness and tiredness. Your symptoms can be obvious as the disease worsens, including:
1 Morning eyelid or facial edema, afternoon fade, more tired after aggravating, reduce after the break. Severe edema can appear in low body parts, such as double ankle inside, double lower limbs and lumbar di ministry, etc
2 Urine bubble is much and appears for a long time, which shows that protein in the urine excretion is more.
3 If urine color is thick dark brown and soy sauce color, you should see a doctor immediately.
The causes of Chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with many factors, which mainly is due to high blood pressure or diabetes. Other factors include using medicine blindly, working too hard, eating too much salt, infection and bad environment.
Early detection and treatment can often keep chronic kidney disease from getting worse. If untreated, it may eventually lead to kidney failure and uremia, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life.

Treatment for CKD is various in the world. But the most effective treatment is combination of Chinese traditional and Western medicine. Western medicine can slow down the progression of the kidney damage, while Chinese traditional medicine can cure the kidney. In this way, we can achieve the best result.

Top 7 Symptoms of CKD

Chronic kidney disease is a progressive illness and can not be found easily as it causes no obvious symptoms in early stage. CKD is divided into five stages by the GFR (glomerular filtration rate). But with the progression of illness, more and more discomforts will be caused and here we will introduce the symptoms of CKD, and hope it can help you know better about CKD.
Edema
Swellings occurs when excess fluid buildup in the body. It firstly appears in
Fatigue
Patient with CKD often feels tired. kidney has the function of excreting hemopoietins. Kidney damage causes the excretion of red cells reduces, which is also called anemia. As a result, the body cells don’t have enough oxygen supply to metabolize, then patient feels tired.
Back pain
Not all kinds of chronic kidney diseases can cause back pain. Kidney diseases like PKD, IGA nephropathy, and so on, may make patient feel painful around his kidneys.
Urination changes
There may be foam in the urine of CKD patient. Tea colored, brown or red may appear if there are blood in the urine. The patient may urinate more in the night.
Nausea and vomit
Patient’s digestive system may be damaged, so patient may vomit.
Skin itching
Because the accumulation of toxic waste in the blood, or the function of drugs, the patent may feel itching on his skin.
Difficulty in concentration
Patient may feel difficult to focus his concentration on some point.

These are the symptoms that CKD patient often has. Surely , there may be other symptoms that may occur in patient with CKD, and the list is not complete. If you has any doubt, you can leave a message or send email to us, and we will give you answer in time.

Something You Need to Know about dialysis

Dialysis is a process for removing pathogenic substances from the blood to achieve the purpose of treating disease. It includes hemodialysis, hemofiltration, hemoperfusion, plasmapheresis, immune adsorption, etc. The following is a briefly introduction on the different dialysis methods.
Hemodialysis: one of the longest and most widely used method. Due to the safe and feasible character, it can be applied to most of the patients with renal failure.
Hemofiltration: a dialysis method based on hemodialysis. Since it is more close to the renal function, the effect is better than hemodialysis.
Plasmapheresis: is a removal treatment and return of (components of) blood plasma from blood circulation.
Immune adsorption: the removal of antibody from antiserum by specific antigen, with aggregation of the antigen-antibody complex followed by separation of that complex by means of centrifugation or filtration.
Hemoperfusion: similar to immune adsorption, this technique is only infrequently utilized as a medical process used to remove toxic substances from a patient's blood.
Indications and contraindications
The indications for hemodialysis include:
①Acute renal failure;
②Acute drug or toxic poisoning;
③Chronic renal failure(Kidney Failure);
④Renal failure before transplant or the transplanted kidney has no function;
⑤Other diseases (liver failure, schizophrenia, psoriasis, etc.).
Contraindications for hemodialysis include:
①Hypotension and shock;
②Severe hematosepsis;
③Severe myocardial dysfunction or coronary artery disease (CAD);
④3 days after big operations
⑤Hematencephalon, severe bleeding tendency and anemia;
⑥Mental disease;
⑦Malignant tumor.
Can you stop dialysis
Whether the dialysis can stop or not is depended on the patient's body condition. Hemodialysis is commonly known as artificial kidney, but it only replaces the non-functional kidney, ensures the operation of human metabolism. It does not have the efficacy of rehabilitate the kidney. For the end stage of the uremia, the renal function can only be replaced by hemodialysis.

The all above is a briefly introduction about dialysis, if you have anything to consult, please contact with our online doctor, thank you.

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